The principles of military strategy emerged at least as far back compendiu de opțiuni de strategii BC in the works of Sun Tzu and Chanakya.
Mahan describes in the preface to The Influence of Sea Power upon History how the Romans used their sea power to effectively block the sea lines of communication of Hannibal with Carthage ; and so via a maritime strategy achieved Hannibal's removal from Italy, despite never beating him there with their legions.
One of these strategies was shown in the battle between Greek city states and Persia.
The Battle of Thermopylae in which the Greek forces were outnumbered stood as a good military strategy. The Greek allied forces ultimately lost the battle, but the training, use of armor, and location allowed them to defeat many Persian troops before losing. In the end, the Greek alliance lost the battle but not the war as a result of that strategy which continued on to the battle of Plataea. The Battle of Plataea in BC resulted in a victory for the Greeks against Persia, which exemplified that military strategy was extremely beneficial to defeating a numerous enemy.
Early strategies included the strategy of annihilation, exhaustion, attrition warfarescorched earth action, blockadeguerrilla campaign, deception and feint.
Ingenuity and adeptness were limited only by imagination, accord, and technology. Strategists continually exploited ever-advancing technology. Genghis' successes, and those of his successors, were based on manoeuvre and terror.
The main focus of Genghis' strategic assault was the psychology of the opposing population.
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By steady and meticulous implementation of this strategy, Genghis and opțiuni binare cum se prezice descendants were able to conquer most of Eurasia. The building blocks of Genghis' army and his strategy were his tribal levies of mounted archersscorched earth -style methods, and, equally essential, the vast horse-herds of Mongolia.
Each archer had at least one extra horse—there was an average five horses per man—thus the entire army could move with astounding rapidity. Moreover, since horse milk and horse blood were the staples of the Mongolian diet, Genghis' horse-herds functioned not just as his means of movement but as his logistical sustainment.
All other necessities would be foraged and plundered. Khan's marauders also brought with them mobile shelters, concubines, butchers, and cooks.
Through maneuver and continuous assault, ChinesePersianArab and Eastern European armies could be stressed until they collapsed, and were then annihilated in pursuit and encirclement. It was not until well into the 20th century that any army was able to match the speed of deployment of Genghis' armies.
When confronted with a fortified city, the Mongol imperatives of maneuver and speed required that it be quickly subdued. Here the terror engendered by the bloody reputation of the Mongolians helped to intimidate and subdue.
So too did primitive biological warfare. A trebuchet or other type of ballista weapon would be used to launch dead animals and corpses into a besieged city, spreading disease and death, such as the Black Plague. If a particular town or city displeased the Mongolian Khan, everyone in the city would be killed to set an example for all other cities.
- Но она понимала, что надежды нет: электроника вряд ли уцелела после катастрофы.
- Это очень и очень плохо.
- Даже президент Соединенных Штатов не решался бросать вызов Фонтейну, что не раз позволял себе Стратмор.
- - Посмотрим, кто ты .
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This was early psychological warfare. To refer to the nine strategic principles outlined above, the Mongol strategy was directed toward an objective that schwerpunkt main focus being the morale and mental state of the opposing population achieved through the offensive; this offensive was itself characterized by concentration of force, maneuver, surprise, and simplicity.
Early Modern era[ edit ] In Niccolò Machiavelli 's Dell'arte della guerra Art of War dealt with the relationship between civil and military matters and the formation of grand strategy. In the Thirty Years' WarGustavus Adolphus of Sweden demonstrated advanced operational strategy that led to his victories on the soil of the Holy Roman Empire.
It was not until the 18th century that military strategy was subjected to serious study in Europe. The word was first used in German as "Strategie" in a translation of Leo's work inshortly thereafter in French as "stratégie" by Leo's French translator, and was first attested in English Assailed from all sides by France, Austria, Russia and Sweden, Frederick exploited his central position, which enabled him to move his army along interior lines and concentrate against one opponent at a time.
Unable to achieve victory, he was able to stave off defeat until a diplomatic solution emerged. Frederick's "victory" led to great significance being placed on " geometric strategy " which emphasized lines of manoeuvre, awareness of terrain and possession of critical strong-points.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message The French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars that followed revolutionized military strategy.
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With the advent of cheap small arms and the rise of the drafted citizen soldier, armies grew rapidly in size to become massed formations. This necessitated dividing the army first into divisions compendiu de opțiuni de strategii later into corps.
Along with divisions came divisional artillery ; light-weight, mobile cannon with great range and firepower. The rigid formations of pikemen and musketeers firing massed volleys gave way to light infantry fighting in skirmish lines.
Compendiu de opțiuni de strategii I of France took advantage of these developments to pursue an effective "battle of annihilation". Napoleon invariably sought to achieve decision in battle, with the sole aim of utterly destroying his opponent, usually achieving success through superior maneuver.
As ruler and general he dealt with the grand strategy as well as the operational strategy, making compendiu de opțiuni de strategii of political and economic measures. Napoleon in Berlin Meynier.
While not the originator of the methods he used, Napoleon effectively combined the relatively superior maneuver and battle stages into one event. Before this, General Officers had considered this approach to battle as separate events. However, Napoleon used the maneuver to battle to dictate how and where the battle would progress.
The Battle of Austerlitz was a perfect example of this maneuver. Napoleon withdrew from a strong position to draw his opponent forward and tempt him into a flank attack, weakening his center. This allowed the French army to split the allied army and gain victory. Napoleon used two primary strategies for the approach to battle. His "Manoeuvre De Derrière" move compendiu de opțiuni de strategii the rear was intended to place the French Army across the enemy's lines of communications.
This forced the opponent to either march to battle with Napoleon or attempt to find an escape route around the army.